Tag Archives: societal collapse

Mary Shelley’s false messiah in The Last Man

The Last Man by Mary Shelley, 1826

The Last Man by Mary Shelley, 1826

I always wonder just what people believed and assumed in years past, most specifically in hundreds of years past.  And these quotes by Mary Shelley from The Last Man, one of the earliest science fiction novels, give me insight that there are always astute individuals in every age.

Centering around a plague that makes its deadly way to England, the few people left are torn between the calm, caring, patient leader who has brought them across the ocean in search of salvation, and the evil power-hungry charlatan who threatens eternal damnation and preaches that sickness is God’s punishment.

“It is a strange fact, but incontestible, that the philanthropist, who ardent in his desire to do good, who patient, reasonable, and gentle, yet disdains to use other argument than truth, has less influence over men’s minds, than he who, grasping and selfish, refuses not to adopt any means, nor awaken any passion, nor diffuse any falsehood, for the advancement of his cause.”

So relevant to our time!  (Donald Trump running for president)  I guess some things never change.



“Poor and rich were now equal…”

The Last Man by Mary Shelley, 1826

As so many people must, I enjoy reading about how cultured aristocrats, especially those of straight-laced 17th and 18th century England, may act when things go awry.  And although the topic of death and plague is nothing to be pleased about, I found Mary Shelley’s stab at decorum being upended quite pleasing.

While England has been hit with an apocalyptic plague, the main character describes the current state of events:

The Last Man by Mary Shelley, 1826“Families late devoted to exalting and refined pursuits, rich, blooming, and young, with diminished numbers and care-fraught hearts, huddled over a fire, grown selfish and grovelling through suffering.  Without the aid of servants, it was necessary to discharge all household duties; hands unused to such labour must knead the bread, or in the absence of flour, the statesmen or perfumed courtier must undertake the butcher’s office.  Poor and rich were now equal, or rather the poor were the superior, since they entered on such tasks with alacrity and experience; while ignorance, inaptitude, and habits of repose, rendered them fatiguing to the luxurious, galling to the proud, disgustful to all whose minds, bent on intellectual improvement, held it their dearest privilege to be exempt from attending to mere animal wants.”

More from this book in the last couple of posts.

“The plague was not in London alone…”

Except from The Last Man by Mary Shelley, 1826

The Last Man by Mary Shelley, 1826“The plague was not in London alone, it was every where — it came on us, as Ryland had said, like a thousand packs of wolves, howling through the winter night, gaunt and fierce.  When once disease was introduced into the rural districts, its effects appeared more horrible, more exigent, and more difficult to cure, than in towns.  There was a companionship in suffering there, and, the neighbours keeping constant watch on each other, and inspired by the active benevolence of Adrian, succour was afforded, and the path of destruction smoothed.  But in the country, among the scattered farm-houses, in lone cottages, in fields, and barns, tragedies were acted harrowing to the soul, unseen, unheard, unnoticed.  Medical aid was less easily procured, food was more difficult to obtain, and human beings, unwithheld by shame, for they were unbeheld of their fellows, ventured on deeds of greater wickedness, or gave way more readily to their abject fears.”

The Last Man by Mary Shelley

The Last Man by Mary Shelley, published in 1826This book is one of the very first science fiction books written, and is included in the modern post-apocalyptic genre.  Written by Mary Shelley of Frankenstein fame, The Last Man is romantic, melancholy, and beautifully poetic.

The catch is, you have to get through the first half.  It tells the origins of the main character and goes into great depth to describe his relationships with his closest friends and family members, and follows them as they rule England in the late 2000s.

There are very few “predictions” made by the author about future inventions unique to the modern era of the 21st century.  People still travel by boat and carriage, although the government of England is no longer a monarchy.  She writes vague things like “I had an apparatus with me for procuring light” which is a great way of acknowledging that in the future there must be a something better than a lantern but I don’t know what it is.

There really aren’t very many aspects of this book that are “science fiction-ey”.  It is set in Shelley’s far future but she doesn’t much bother coming up with ideas about how people live in that time.  I see it as an experiment about the “end of the world” which has always been a topic of controversy and alarm throughout the ages.

The people in The Last Man travel not just by boat but also by “sailing balloon”.  About half way through the book one of the main character’s close family members die, jumping overboard from a ship (on the water) out of sorrow for her husband’s death.  The main character eschews sailing by boat at that point:

He says “Its hateful splash renewed again and again to my sense the death of my sister” and tells his niece to “sit beside me in this aerial bark” as they make their way back home in a sailing balloon.

“We were lifted above the Alpine peaks, and from their deep and brawling ravines entered the plain of fair France, and after an airy journey of six days, we landed at Dieppe, furled the feathered wings, and closed the silken globe of our little pinnace.”

The feathered wings are the only thing science fiction-ey about this idea since hot air balloons were invented in the late 1700s and this book was published in 1826, but it was one time she took a liberty about an interesting invention that is common place in this future.

As you can tell, the book is written in the old way with long dramatic sentences and lots of commas, and using an extensive vocabulary.  But unlike Jane Austen’s books, let’s say, death is a constant theme.  The above scene occurs about half way through and death is a constant companion for the rest of the book.  One by one his loved ones die, most often of the plague, and he is left as the “last man”.

Mary Shelley's portrait by Richard Rothwell via Wikipedia
Mary Shelley’s portrait by Richard Rothwell via Wikipedia

Shelley was not critically acclaimed for this book and it went out of print within a few years.  The apocalypse was simply not a popular topic I’m assuming, and it was certainly not a lady-like one.  And from a modern point of view, the action doesn’t really start until half way through, like I said, and even then it doesn’t move along at a brisk pace like most fiction written these days.

Either way, it’s an amazing work of art and a bold experiment for Shelley’s time.

Cascadiopolis’s anarchist principles

METAtropolis by Jay Lake, Tobias Buckell, Elizabeth Bear, John Scalzi, & Karl Schroeder

In the Forests of the Night by Jay Lake

METAtropolisThis story tells of the intertwining paths of a mysterious colossal of a man, Tygre, and the forest city of Cascadiopolis.  They both fall, and we are told this early on, but the story is about how that happens, and so much more.

The story is a report (but doesn’t read like one) written by the members of the Cascadiopolis movement as an explanation for what happened, and intermittently includes quotes from various other reports that describe the state of the world at this future point.

“Climate change and resource pinches have caused semi-societal collapse.  America had become “a zombie empire shambling onward through the sheer weight of its extents, but devoid of initiative or credibility… Hope was not dead, but it lived in strange, isolated colonies on the warm corpse of the United States.””

So Cascadiopolis is a success story.  It’s a city based on the principles of anarchy and sustainability.  Whatever works, low or high tech.  And it answers the question as to how an anarchist government would run.  A difficult task, seeing as anarchy is defined as being not in recognition of government.

“Even here in the heart of fog-bound anarchy, there are processes, rules, requirements to be followed.  Freedom must be protected by a wall of suspicion.”

And later under the heading “How it Works:  The Newcomers Guide to Cascadiopolis:

Cascadiopolis is a self-organizing anarchist collective which aspires to the self-actualization of all citizens in accordance with green principles.”

Though a leaderless movement, a Citizen’s Executive committee (and other subcommittees created when need arises) “sits in proxy for the will of the whole” and a vote can be called at any time with 10% agreement from the city.

“This practice is a compromise between our anarchist principles and the unfortunate realities of existing in a world of governments, corporations and capital-intensive infrastructure.  Every citizen’s core aspirations should include a dedication to the day when the Citizen’s Executive will wither away and we are all self-actualized without interference from each other or the city as a whole.”

So Cascadiopolis is a city of ideals.  Unfortunately, sometimes those very ideals create room for downfall.

An infiltrator thinks “They will not do face checks, these people – against what they stand for…”

Sometimes your ideals are all you have, and as long as you survive you can pick them up and go somewhere else, as is the case with this very cool and romantic sounding city among the trees that I will only visit in my dreams.

XOM-B & the best zombie books

XOM-B by Jeremy Robinson

(Pronounced zom-BEE)

XOM-BThis futuristic zombie romp is a pretty fun and action-filled ride.  Zombies show up immediately and the constant action keeps you interested through most of it.  A surprise around each corner and the right length, 11 hours of listening time, makes it a well-rounded futuristic thriller.

The back of the audiobook case says “XOM-B is a wildly inventive zombie novel with a high-tech twist that will keep listeners guessing until the very last sentence.”  I have to admit, this is totally true.

World War Z by Max Brooks was by far the best zombie book I’ve listened to (nothing like the movie, it’s written in report style by different people after the zombie crisis has passed), and the Day By Day Armageddon series by J.L. Bourne was addictive in the way that The Walking Dead is (huge compliment), so XOM-B comes in at #3.  I’ve attempted to read one or two others but gave up because they sucked, plain and simple.  (I’m open to suggestions!)

Freeman, the main character of XOM-B, is a fully grown 16-day old man so we know he’s not normal.  He and his protector proceed to fight their way through a dangerous world of endless zombie hordes, set in the 2080s if I remember right, and he takes along a woman friend named Luscious.  I will only say, even the cheesy parts, like that name, are explained as totally rational when you find out the secrets of the book.

RC BrayThe narrator, R.C. Bray, must be given props too because I always knew which of the characters were speaking.  I would imagine that the perfect book to narrate is one with no more than 5 or 6 speaking characters, or even fewer, so that his or her repertoire of voices is never exhausted.

An audiobook becomes a totally different work of art than the book, and an exceptional narrator, of which there are many, brings it to a new, sometimes better level.  I would probably never read this book in print, but an audiobook is essentially an audio drama when the narrator does different voices for different characters, and it very much adds to the depth of the world that the author originally created.

It’s not a deep thinker, but I recommend this energetic fast-paced fun audiobook.

(Update:  Pride and Prejudice and Zombies and its sequel are now #2, ahead of the Armageddon series, in regards to my favorite zombie books.)

The Great Collapse, year 2093

The Collapse of Western Civilization by Naomi Oreskes & Erik M. Conway

The Collapse of Western CivilizationThis book is a surprisingly quick and easy read in spite of its scientific concepts and report-style narration.  It’s a “science fiction” book based on what happens over the span of about 400 years, from a few decades ago to about the year 2400, focusing mostly on our present century.

At mid-century climate change has increased temperatures by 6 degrees Celcius (11 degrees Fahrenheit), food riots and famines have resulted from dried up crops, insect populations have destroyed forests and increased disease transmission, and the social order has been thrown into chaos.

And then real catastrophe strikes.  New York under waterIn 2093 the West Antarctic Ice Sheet fully breaks up and the resulting ocean level increases by 5 meters.  Mass migration ensues.  Greenland follows and adds 2 meters.

All of this is eventually referred to as the Great Collapse, a double meaning referring to both the ice sheets and the social order.  1.5 billion people are displaced and the Black Death reemerges to again decimate the human population. 

The book does not have many characters but one is a heroic woman who genetically modifies a lichenized-fungus to absorb high amounts of carbon dioxide.  This combined with a solar minimum helps create some semblance of climate stability, or at least helps humanity on the road to recovery. 

This sounds depressing, but what news about climate change isn’t?  This book is a welcome reprieve from the average climate change warning in that it creates a real future world for us to grasp as opposed to endless charts and computer models.

From The Collapse of Western Civilization
From The Collapse of Western Civilization